After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: The data are all contained within the paper and have been obtained from the sources listed in Table 2. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The first European explorers and settlers on the west and south coasts of southern Africa obtained sheep and cattle from people who spoke a Khoe language, and for long we assumed that the Khoe-speakers had originally migrated into southern Africa en masse bringing the first livestock with them[ 1 — 3 ]. With direct radiocarbon dating of ancient livestock bones from several archaeological sites Table 1 , we are now certain that the earliest sheep and cattle appeared in southern Africa around years ago [ 4 — 8 ]. Since these livestock could not have been domesticated locally their wild ancestors never lived in the southern hemisphere , researchers agree that they must have come from farther north, and different routes and chronologies have been proposed [ 2 , 9 — 11 ]. But the question of how and in whose company livestock arrived has in the last two decades become a contentious topic.
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Development); Jessica Rose (United States Agency for International Development); health professionals, most of which are also in Africa. characterized by entrenched maldistribution of resources dating back to the apartheid era, and with.
New discoveries and dating of fossil remains from the Rising Star cave system, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa, have strong implications for our understanding of Pleistocene human evolution in Africa. Direct dating of Homo naledi fossils from the Dinaledi Chamber Berger et al. Hawks and colleagues Hawks et al. Previously, only large-brained modern humans or their close relatives had been demonstrated to exist at this late time in Africa, but the fossil evidence for any hominins in subequatorial Africa was very sparse.
It is now evident that a diversity of hominin lineages existed in this region, with some divergent lineages contributing DNA to living humans and at least H. The existence of a diverse array of hominins in subequatorial comports with our present knowledge of diversity across other savanna-adapted species, as well as with palaeoclimate and paleoenvironmental data.
Species of ancient humans and the extinct relatives of our ancestors are typically described from a limited number of fossils. However, this was not the case with Homo naledi.
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Facts and figures: Ending violence against women
International migration from countries in sub-Saharan Africa has grown dramatically over the past decade, 1 including to Europe 2 and the United States. Indeed, most years since have witnessed a rising inflow of sub-Saharan asylum applicants in Europe, and lawful permanent residents and refugees in the U. The factors pushing people to leave sub-Saharan Africa — and the paths they take to arrive at their destinations — vary from country to country and individual to individual.
Sub-Saharan Africans also moved to European Union countries, Norway and Switzerland as international students and resettled refugees, through family reunification and by other means. According to data from U. Department of Homeland Security and U.
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Global and regional estimates of violence against women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence , p. Global Study on Homicide , p. Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 8 , p. Is every child counted? Behind the numbers: ending school violence and bullying , p. School violence and bullying: Global status and trends, drivers and consequences , p.
Violence against women: an EU-wide survey , p. Sexism, harassment and violence against women parliamentarians , p. Women, Business and the Law , database. No safe place: A lifetime of violence for conflict-affected women and girls in South Sudan, Summary report , p. Open Menu. Evidence shows that women who have experienced physical or sexual intimate partner violence report higher rates of depression, having an abortion and acquiring HIV, compared to women who have not [ 1 ].
Similar to data from other regions, in all four countries of a multi-country study from the Middle East and North Africa, men who witnessed their fathers using violence against their mothers, and men who experienced some form of violence at home as children, were significantly more likely to report perpetrating intimate partner violence in their adult relationships. For example, in Lebanon the likelihood of perpetrating physical violence was more than three times higher among men who had witnessed their fathers beating their mothers during childhood than those who did not [ 2 ].
Facts and figures: Ending violence against women
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Showing 10 out of 19, results for:. The Trump administration will send two top officials to the Middle East this week in a bid to capitalize on momentum from the historic agreement between Israeli and the United Arab Emirates to establish diplomatic relations. Early releases of prisoners to protect them from the virus have depleted the ranks of an inmate firefighting program that some say should be abolished anyway. But it can still destroy their futures. A child allowance would help.
The press office of former Bolivian President Evo Morales denounced a criminal complaint of sex abuse as part of a “dirty war” by the interim government against the ousted leader less than two months before the country’s general elections. Marco, one of two tropical storms headed for the U. Gulf Coast, was forecast to strengthen into a hurricane later on Saturday as coastal governors urged residents to prepare for the unprecedented weather event amid the COVID pandemic.
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These U. However, all occurred after May when the U. One year after the U. Until then, the U. The snapback move comes a week after the U. The United States received the support of only one other Security Council member the Dominican Republic , and Pompeo had strong words for European allies who did not.
Author World Meteorological Organization (WMO) This publication is the outcome of the revision, expansion and up-dating of the Handbook through major projects such as the EU-funded GFCS Intra-African, Caribbean and Pacific.
Tags: Add tag. This publication provides guidance on homogenization of instrumental land station data. For beginners, the publication describes prerequisites for homogenization including data rescue, quality control, metadata, parallel measurements etc , explains homogenization practices in detail and provides an overview of homogenization software packages. For advanced users, the history and mathematical theory of homogenization is introduced. About us Disclaimer Copyright Sitemap.
Login user name Forgotten password? No review, please log in to add yours! English , French. Guidelines on Homogenization. Translated under the title. GAW Report, International Comparison of Dobson Spectrophotometers.